Am 6. Mai verunglückte der Zeppelin "Hindenburg", 36 Menschen kamen ums Leben. Das Unglück war live im Radio zu hören. Es hatte. CHRISTOPH LÜTGERT: Gar nicht erst der Versuch einer Überleitung, sondern ganz einfach Ansage eines anderen Themas. Der Zeppelin LZ "Hindenburg" in. Vor 80 Jahren explodierte die "Hindenburg", das Luftschiff LZ , kurz vor der Landung in New York. Die Ursache ist bis heute nicht. <
Hindenburg-Absturz: Als die "Titanic der Lüfte" Feuer fingAm 3. Mai startet die "Hindenburg" in Frankfurt Richtung New York. und Filmteams dokumentieren den Absturz der Hindenburg vor Ort. Es ist die erste. Am 6. Mai verunglückte der Zeppelin "Hindenburg", 36 Menschen kamen ums Leben. Das Unglück war live im Radio zu hören. Es hatte. „Hindenburg“-Absturz, eine Abfolge fataler Physik-Verkettungen. Am 6. Mai endete die Geschichte der zivilen Luftschifffahrt in einer.
Absturz Hindenburg „Hindenburg“-Absturz, eine Abfolge fataler Physik-Verkettungen VideoDie Hindenburg 1975 - ganzer Film auf Deutsch Quelle: Zeppelin Museum Friedrichshafen. Wir freuen uns! Hindenburg-Absturz lernst du in der 9. 5/6/ · „Hindenburg“-Absturz, eine Abfolge fataler Physik-Verkettungen Am 6. Mai endete die Geschichte der zivilen Luftschifffahrt in einer Tragödie: In Lakehurst bei Author: Johann Althaus. Zeppelin LZ Hindenburg byl spolu se svou sesterskou lodí LZ Graf Zeppelin II největším létajícím strojem všech dob. Byl pojmenován po říšském prezidentovi Paulovi von Hindenburg a v roce ho sestrojila firma Luftschiffbau Zeppelin s náklady v přepočtu tehdejších liber.Měl zcela novou konstrukci z duralu; byl m dlouhý (jen o přibližně 25 m kratší. 2/25/ · Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg (listen), typically known simply as Paul von Hindenburg (German: [ˈpaʊl fɔn ˈhɪndn̩bʊɐ̯k] (); 2 October – 2 August ), was a German general and statesman who led the Imperial German Army during World War I and later became President of Germany from until his death in The far right detested Stresemann for promoting friendly relations with the victors. Sie sollte nun herabgezogen und dann am Boden fixiert werden. Hindenburg was financially sustained by a fund set up by a group of admiring industrialists. Hamden, CT: Archon. Pruss flew on nearly every flight Apple Mail Probleme the Graf Zeppelin until the Hindenburg was ready. Additional troops and skilled commanders, like Nächste Steam Sale Hutier, Auto Serien shifted from the east, Army Group von Gallwitz was formed in the west on 1 February. German troops were in Finlandthe Baltic States, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, much of Romania, the Crimea, and in a salient east of Ukraine extending east almost to the Volga and south into Georgia and Armenia. Hoehling published Who Destroyed the Hindenburg? Es war das erste tödliche Unglück in der zivilen Luftfahrt mit Zeppelin-Luftschiffen nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg. Modern experiments that recreated the fabric and Schwerenöter Definition materials Absturz Hindenburg the Hindenburg seem to discredit the incendiary Weltcup Tv hypothesis. Upon completing his education as a cadet, he enlisted in the Third Regiment of Foot Guards as a second lieutenant.
Gorbachev mixed praise for the end of the Cold War with some On May 6, , year-old race car driver Harry Gant racks up his 12th National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing NASCAR Winston Cup career victory in the Winston in Talladega, Alabama.
In doing so, Gant bettered his own record as the oldest man ever to win a NASCAR On May 6, , U. Lieutenant General Jonathan Wainwright surrenders all U.
The island of Corregidor remained the last Allied stronghold in the Philippines after the Japanese victory at Bataan from which General Wainwright had Live TV.
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Germans designed the airship to use it because they believed that they could convince the US government to license its export. Hindenburg made its maiden test flight on March 4, with 87 passengers and crew aboard.
After six trial flights made over a three-week period the Hindenburg was ready for public flight with a 6, km propaganda flight around Germany.
Its first commercial passenger flight, a four-day transatlantic voyage to Rio de Janeiro, Hindenburg flew on March It had 63 flights in total.
The last flight of Hindenburg was from 3 to 6 May Hindenburg left Frankfurt for Lakehurst on the evening of May 3. On 26 January , Hindenburg privately told a group of his friends: "Gentlemen, I hope you will not hold me capable of appointing this Austrian corporal to be Reich Chancellor".
In foreign affairs he spoke with hostility towards Poland, often expressing a hope that the Polish state would disappear from the map of Europe "at an appropriate moment" .
By January , at the age of 84, Hindenburg was vacillating about running for a second term. Brüning recalled that once the president came to meet him at the railway station, but failed to recognize him.
His intentions were not to "abandon my efforts for a healthy move to the Right". Hitler was to be one of his opponents in the election. Hindenburg left most campaigning to others, in his single radio address he stressed the need for unity, "I recall the spirit of , and the mood at the front, which asked about the man, and not about his class or party".
In the first round of voting in March , Hindenburg was front-runner, but failed to gain the required majority. However, he was disappointed because he lost voters from the right, only winning by the support of those who had strongly opposed him seven years before.
He wrote "Despite all the blows in the neck I have taken, I will not abandon my efforts for a healthy move to the Right". Schleicher took the lead in choosing the cabinet, in which he was Reichswehr Minister.
Groener was now even more unpopular to the right because he had banned wearing party uniforms in public. On 13 May Schleicher told Groener that he had "lost the confidence of the Army" and must resign at once.
To cope with mounting unemployment, Brüning desperately wanted an emergency decree to launch a program in which bankrupt estates would be carved up into small farms and turned over to unemployed settlers.
When they met, Hindenburg read a statement that there would be no further decrees and insisted that the cabinet resign, there must be a turn to the right.
Brüning resigned on 1 June He was succeeded by Papen from the Centre Party, who was Schleicher's choice, Hindenburg did not even ask the party leaders for advice.
He was delighted with Papen, a rich, smooth aristocrat who had been a famous equestrian and a general staff officer; he soon became a Hindenburg family friend Schleicher was no longer welcomed because he had quarreled with Oskar.
The president was delighted to find that eight members of the new cabinet had served as officers during the war. Thanks to the previous government, reparations were phased out at the Lausanne Conference , but without progress on other issues, so it was attacked by the German right.
The Social Democratic government of the State of Prussia was a caretaker, because it had lost its mandate in the preceding election.
Papen accused it of failing to maintain public order, and removed it on 20 July. The national elections came eleven days later.
Eight parties received substantial numbers of votes, but those supporting the government lost strength, while opponents on the right and left gained.
The Nazis polled almost the same 37 percent they had in the presidential election, making them the largest party in the Reichstag.
Schleicher negotiated with them, proposing that Hitler become vice-chancellor. Hitler demanded the chancellorship along with five cabinet positions and important posts in the state governments; additionally the Reichstag would have to pass an Enabling act giving a new government all needed powers, otherwise it would be dissolved.
Around the country Nazi stormtroopers were running riot, attacking their political opponents. Hindenburg refused to make Hitler chancellor, so he met with Hitler to explain that he was unwilling to bring a single party to power, concluding with "I want to extend my hand to you as a fellow soldier.
The constitution mandated a new election within sixty days, but owing to the crisis Hindenburg postponed it.
Papen published an economic recovery plan that almost all of the parties and the labor unions lambasted. His scant support crumbled further. To add enough votes to gain a parliamentary mandate, Schleicher tried to persuade some of the Nazi leaders, like the war hero Hermann Göring , to defect and to take a position in his government.
None of them would, so he became another presidential chancellor, still courting prominent Nazis—otherwise his days as chancellor were numbered.
Papen continued to negotiate with Hitler, who moderated his conditions: he would settle for the chancellorship, the Reich Commissioner of Prussia and two cabinet positions: interior and a new slot for aviation.
He also promised that he would respect the rights of the president, the Reichstag and the press, and Papen would be vice-chancellor.
Schleicher learned of the secret meeting and the following morning met with the president to demand emergency powers and the dissolution of the Reichstag.
Hindenburg refused the powers but agreed to the election. Before a new government could be formed Hindenburg called General Werner von Blomberg , an opponent of Schleicher, back from a disarmament conference and appointed him Reichswehr minister, perhaps unaware that he was a Nazi sympathizer.
To break the stalemate, Hindenburg proposed Hitler as chancellor, Papen as vice-chancellor and Reich commissioner of Prussia, and Göring as Prussian interior minister who controlled the police.
Two other cabinet ministers would be Nazis, the remaining eight would be from other parties. When Hindenburg met with Hitler, Papen would always be present.
The new cabinet included only three Nazis: Hitler, Göring and Wilhelm Frick. Besides Hitler, Frick was the only Nazi with a portfolio; he held the nearly powerless Interior Ministry unlike the rest of Europe, at the time the Interior Ministry had no power over the police, which was the responsibility of the Länder.
Göring did not receive a portfolio, but critically was made Prussian interior minister, controlling the largest police force in which he promoted Nazis as commanders.
Blomberg was Reichswehr minister, Hugenberg was both economics and agriculture minister, and Seldte the leader of the first World War ex- servicemen 's organization Der Stahlhelm was labor minister.
The other ministers were holdovers from the Papen and Schleicher cabinets. Hitler's first act as chancellor was to ask Hindenburg to dissolve the Reichstag , so that the Nazis and Deutschnationale Volkspartei "German Nationalists" or DNVP could win an outright majority to pass the Enabling Act that would give the new government power to rule by decree, supposedly for the next four years.
Unlike laws passed by Article 48, which could be cancelled by a majority in the Reichstag , under the Enabling Act the Chancellor could pass laws by decree that could not be cancelled by a vote in the Reichstag.
Hindenburg agreed to this request. In early February , Papen asked for and received an Article 48 bill signed into law that sharply limited freedom of the press.
After the Reichstag fire on 27 February, Hindenburg, at Hitler's urging, signed into law the Reichstag Fire Decree via Article 48, which effectively suspended all civil liberties in Germany.
Göring as Prussian Interior Minister had enlisted thousands of Sturmabteilung SA men as auxiliary policemen, who attacked political opponents of the Nazis, with Communists and Social Democrats being singled out for particular abuse.
Fritz Schäffer , a conservative Catholic and a leading politician of the Bavarian People's Party met Hindenburg on 17 February to complain about the ongoing campaign of terror against the SPD.
We reject the notion that millions of Germans are not to be designated as national. The socialists served in the trenches and will serve in the trenches again.
They voted for the banner of Hindenburg I know many socialists who have earned acclaim for their service to Germany; I need only mention the name of Ebert.
Hindenburg, who had always hated the Social Democrats, rejected Schäffer's appeal, saying that the SPD were "traitors" who had "stabbed the Fatherland in the back" in , and who could never belong to the volksgemeinschaft.
Therefore, the Nazis had his full support in their campaign against the Social Democrats. Hindenburg disliked Hitler, but he approved of his efforts to create the volksgemeinschaft.
Hitler soon obtained Hindenburg's confidence, promising that after Germany regained full sovereignty, the monarchy would be restored; after a few weeks Hindenburg no longer asked Papen to join their meetings.
The opening of the new Reichstag was celebrated with a Nazi extravaganza: Hindenburg descended into the crypt of the old garrison church in Potsdam to commune with the spirit of Frederick the Great at his grave, attended by Hitler who saluted the president as "the custodian of the new rise of our people.
With the Communist deputies and many Social Democrats kept out of the chamber in violation of Articles 36 and 37 of the constitution , the Reichstag passed the Act with well more than the needed two-thirds majority, effectively ending the Republic.
As it turned out, that meeting took place in such an intimidating atmosphere that the Enabling Act would have garnered the required supermajority even with all deputies present and voting.
During and , Hitler was very aware that Hindenburg was the only check on his power. With the passage of the Enabling Act and the banning of all parties except the Nazis, Hindenburg's power to sack the Chancellor was the only means by which Hitler could be legally removed from office.
Given that Hindenburg was still a popular war hero and a revered figure in the Reichswehr , there was little doubt that the Reichswehr would side with Hindenburg if he ever decided to sack Hitler.
Thus, as long as Hindenburg was alive, Hitler was always very careful to avoid offending him or the Army.
Although Hindenburg was in increasingly bad health, the Nazis made sure that whenever Hindenburg did appear in public it was in Hitler's company.
During these appearances, Hitler always made a point of showing him the utmost respect and deference. Economic austerity was abandoned as Hitler poured money into new programs hiring the unemployed, buying armaments , and building infrastructure—especially roads and autobahns.
Hitler gained the support of the armed forces by promising to rebuild their strength. The German states were taken over by the national government, the labor unions were suppressed, political opponents were imprisoned, and Jews were ejected from the civil service which included the universities.
Hindenburg only objected about the treatment of Jews; he wanted war veterans retained, to which Hitler acceded. When Hitler moved to eject Hugenberg from the cabinet and to suppress the political parties, a trusted colleague of Hugenberg's was sent to Neudeck to appeal for assistance but only met with Oskar.
Hindenburg delayed the appointment of one Nazi Gauleiter , but failed to obtain the installation of a Lutheran bishop he favored.
The honor guard at Neudeck now were storm troopers. On 27 August at the stirring ceremonies at Tannenberg the president was presented with two large East Prussian properties near Neudeck.
On the night before the plebiscite on Nazi rule scheduled for 11 November , Hindenburg appealed to the voters to support their president and their chancellor, When a new commander of the army was to be appointed the president's choice won out over the chancellor's, but Hindenburg accepted a change in the military oath that eliminated obedience to the president and placed the swastika on military uniforms.
By summer , Hindenburg was dying of metastasized bladder cancer and his correspondence was dominated by complaints of Nazi stormtroopers running amok.
In the fall of , a group of Hindenburg's friends led by General August von Cramon asked Hindenburg to restore the monarchy. Of course, I recognize your fidelity to our Kaiser, King and Lord without reservation.
But precisely because I share this sentiment, I must urgently warn against the step you plan to take. The domestic crisis is not yet completely over, and foreign powers will have a hard time imagining me on the sidelines if it comes to a restoration of the monarchy.
To say this is unbelievably painful for me. During the summer of , Hindenburg grew increasingly alarmed at Nazi excesses.
With his support, Papen gave a speech at the University of Marburg on 17 June calling for an end to state terror and the restoration of some freedoms.
When Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels got wind of it, he not only canceled a scheduled tape-delayed broadcast of the speech, but ordered the seizure of newspapers in which part of the text was printed.
Papen was furious, telling Hitler that he was acting as a "trustee" of Hindenburg, and that a "junior minister" like Goebbels had no right to silence him.
He resigned and immediately notified Hindenburg about what happened. Hindenburg was equally outraged, and told Blomberg to give Hitler an ultimatum—unless Hitler took steps to end the growing tension in Germany and rein in the SA, Hindenburg would sack him, declare martial law and turn the government over to the army.
Not long afterward, Hitler carried out the Night of the Long Knives , in which the SA's leaders were murdered, for which he received Hindenburg's personal thanks in a telegram.
During the Nuremberg Trials , Goring admitted the telegram was never seen by Hindenburg, and was actually written by the Nazis.
Hindenburg remained in office until his death at the age of 86 from lung cancer at his home in Neudeck , East Prussia , on 2 August The day before, Hitler received word that Hindenburg was on his deathbed.
He then had the cabinet pass the "Law Concerning the Highest State Office of the Reich," which stipulated that upon Hindenburg's death, the office of president would be abolished and its powers merged with those of the Chancellor under the title of Führer und Reichskanzler Leader and Chancellor of the Reich.
Two hours after Hindenburg's death, it was announced that as a result of this law, Hitler was now both Germany's head of state and head of government, thereby eliminating the last remedy by which he could be legally dismissed and cementing his status as the absolute dictator of Germany.
In truth, Hitler had known as early as April that Hindenburg would likely not survive the year. He worked feverishly to get the armed forces—the only group in Germany that would be nearly powerful enough to remove him with Hindenburg dead—to support his bid to become head of state after Hindenburg's death.
In a meeting aboard the Deutschland on April 11 with Blomberg, army commander Werner von Fritsch and naval commander Erich Raeder , Hitler publicly proposed that he himself succeed Hindenburg.
In return for the armed forces' support, he agreed to suppress the SA and promised that the armed forces would be the only bearers of arms in Germany under his watch.
Raeder agreed right away, but Fritsch withheld his support until May 18, when the senior generals unanimously agreed to back Hitler as Hindenburg's successor.
Hitler had a plebiscite held on 19 August , in which the German people were asked if they approved of Hitler taking the office of Führer. Contrary to Hindenburg's will, he was interred with his wife in a magnificent ceremony at the Tannenberg Memorial.
In , as the Soviets approached, Generalleutnant Oskar von Hindenburg moved his parents' remains to western Germany. After World War II the Poles razed the Tannenberg Memorial to the ground.
The remains of Hindenburg and his wife currently lie buried in St. Elizabeth's Church, Marburg. On a visit to Hindenburg's headquarters, Crown Prince Wilhelm described the mood as family-like.
Despite this bonhomie, Hindenburg kept his own counsel. According to Kaiser Wilhelm II, "Hindenburg never said more than half of what he really thought".
After a painting was completed Hindenburg would periodically check on how many printed reproductions had been sold. Vogel was with him throughout the war and did his last portrait in Protecting his warrior image, Hindenburg wrote in his memoir that "the artists were a distraction [with which] we would have preferred to dispense".
After overseeing Germany's crushing victory at Tannenberg, Paul von Hindenburg became the center of a massive personality cult that persisted throughout his life.
Henceforth, he was lauded as the living ideal of German masculinity and patriotism. The intensity, longevity, striking political and social breadth, and political deployment of the adulation for Hindenburg—in short, the power of the Hindenburg myth from until and beyond—was a political phenomenon of the first order The Hindenburg myth was one of the central narratives in German public discourse during the First World War, the Weimar Republic, and the early years of Nazi rule.
That his initiation as a mythical figure rested on national defence and a battle fought against the arch-enemy of German Social Democracy, Tsarist Russia, had endeared him to many on the moderate left from onwards.
During World War I, The most celebrated tribute to Hindenburg was a 12 meter tall wooden likeness erected in Berlin. What admirers paid to drive in nails — ultimately 30 tons of them —went to war widows.
Smaller versions were erected throughout Germany. The famed zeppelin Hindenburg that was destroyed by fire in was named in his honor, as was the Hindenburgdamm , a causeway joining the island of Sylt to mainland Schleswig-Holstein that was built during his time in office.
The previously Upper Silesian town of Zabrze German: Hindenburg O. The Hindenburg Range in New Guinea, which includes perhaps one of the world's largest cliffs, the Hindenburg Wall, also bears his name.
Historian Christopher Clark has criticized Hindenburg in his role as head of state for:. And then, having publicly declared that he would never consent to appoint Hitler to any post But he was not, in truth, a man of tradition As a military commander and later as Germany's head of state, Hindenburg broke virtually every bond he entered into.
He was not the man of dogged, faithful service, but the man of image, manipulation and betrayal. Coat of arms of Paul von Hindenburg as knight of the Spanish branch of the Order of the Golden Fleece.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Prussian-German field marshal, statesman, and president of Germany This article is about the German president.
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February Biography portal Military of Germany portal World War I portal Conservatism portal. Out of my life. Translated by F. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books.
Hindenburg and the Weimar Republic. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Great Battlefields of the World. Edison, NJ: Chartwell Books, Inc.
Der Weltkrieg, — dem deutschen Volke dargestellt. Berlin: Wilhelm Kolk. Clash of empires. Hamden, CT: Archon. Tannenberg: the first thirty days in East Prussia.
Edinburgh: W. Blackwood and Sons. Command or Control? London: Frank Cass. The dogma of the battle of annihilation. Westport, CT: Greenport Press.
The First World War, Germany and Austria-Hungary — London: Arnold. German strategy and the path to Verdun: Erich von Falkenhayn and the development of attrition, Cambridge University Press.
Passage through Armageddon. The German High Command at War: Hindenburg and Ludendorff conduct World War I.
New York: William Morrow. Haig's intelligence. GHQ and the German Army, — Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Mein Kriegstagbuch. München: Deutscher National Verlag U.
Translated by Brian Connell. London: A. Stormtroop Tactics. Innovation in the German Army, — Westport, CT: Praeger.
If Germany Attacks. The Battle in Depth in the West. London: Faber and Faber. The Silent Dictatorship. The Politics of the German High Command under Hindenburg and Ludendorff, — London: Croom Helm.
Der Weltkrieg bis Berlin: Mittler. A fatalist at war. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. The Enemy's House Divided. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Imperial Germany and the Great War, — Notes Rec. British Generalship in the twentieth century. London: Arms and Armour.
A survey of German Tactics The Base Printing Plant. French Headquarters — Translated by Major C. Ah, ah I can't. Listen, folks; I I'm gonna have to stop for a minute because I've lost my voice.
This is the worst thing I've ever witnessed. Al Gold of Fox Movietone News later received a Presidential Citation for his work.
When the fire started he did not have the time to put the camera to his eye and shot the photo "from the hip".
Murray Becker of Associated Press photographed the fire engulfing the airship while it was still on even keel using his 4 x 5 Speed Graphic camera.
His next photograph see right , shows flames bursting out of the nose as the bow telescoped upwards.
In addition to professional photographers, spectators also photographed the crash. They were stationed in the spectators' area near Hangar No.
Customs broker Arthur Cofod Jr. Nine of Cofod's photographs were printed in Life magazine,  while Chu's photographs were shown in the New York Daily News.
The newsreels and photographs, along with Morrison's passionate reporting shattered public and industry faith in airships and marked the end of the giant passenger-carrying airships.
Also contributing to the downfall of Zeppelins was the arrival of international passenger air travel and Pan American Airlines.
The one advantage that the Hindenburg had over such aircraft was the comfort that she afforded her passengers.
In contrast to the media coverage in the United States, media coverage of the disaster in Germany was more subdued.
Although some photographs of the disaster were published in newspapers, the newsreel footage was not released until after World War II.
Additionally, German victims were memorialized in a similar manner to fallen war heroes, and grassroots movements to fund zeppelin construction as happened after the crash of the LZ 4 were expressly forbidden by the Nazi government.
There had been a series of other airship accidents prior to the Hindenburg fire; many were caused by bad weather. The Graf Zeppelin had flown safely for more than 1.
The Zeppelin company's promotions had prominently featured the fact that no passenger had been injured on any of its airships. There was a total 13 deaths out of the 36 passengers on the airship, 22 of the 61 crew died; most survivors were severely burned.
Among the killed was one ground crewman, the civilian linesman Allen Hagaman. The majority of the victims were burnt to death, while others died jumping from the airship at an excessive height, or as a consequence of either smoke inhalation or falling debris.
The majority of the crewmen who died were up inside the ship's hull, where they either did not have a clear escape route or were close to the bow of the ship, which hung burning in the air for too long for most of them to escape death.
Most of the crew in the bow died in the fire, although at least one was filmed falling from the bow to his death.
Most of the passengers who died were trapped in the starboard side of the passenger deck. Not only was the wind blowing the fire toward the starboard side, but the ship also rolled slightly to starboard as it settled to the ground, with much of the upper hull on that part of the ship collapsing outboard of the starboard observation windows, thus cutting off the escape of many of the passengers on that side.
By contrast, all but a few of the passengers on the port side of the ship survived the fire, with some of them escaping virtually unscathed.
Although the best remembered airship disaster, it was not the worst. Just over twice as many 73 of 76 on board had perished when the helium-filled U.
Werner Franz, the year-old cabin boy, was initially dazed on realizing the ship was on fire but when a water tank above him burst open, putting out the fire around him, he was spurred to action.
He made his way to a nearby hatch and dropped through it just as the forward part of the ship was briefly rebounding into the air. He began to run toward the starboard side, but stopped and turned around and ran the other way because wind was pushing the flames in that direction.
He escaped without injury, and was the last surviving crew member when he died in Doehner , died November 8, When the control car crashed onto the ground, most of the officers leapt through the windows, but became separated.
First Officer Captain Albert Sammt found Captain Max Pruss trying to re-enter the wreckage to look for survivors. Pruss's face was badly burned, and he required months of hospitalization and reconstructive surgery, but he survived.
Captain Ernst Lehmann escaped the crash with burns to his head and arms and severe burns across most of his back.
He died at a nearby hospital the next day. When passenger Joseph Späh, a vaudeville comic acrobat, saw the first sign of trouble he smashed the window with his movie camera with which he had been filming the landing the film survived the disaster.
As the ship neared the ground he lowered himself out the window and hung onto the window ledge, letting go when the ship was perhaps 20 feet above the ground.
His acrobat's instincts kicked in, and Späh kept his feet under him and attempted to do a safety roll when he landed. He injured his ankle nonetheless, and was dazedly crawling away when a member of the ground crew came up, slung the diminutive Späh under one arm, and ran him clear of the fire.
Of the 12 crewmen in the bow of the airship, only three survived. Four of these 12 men were standing on the mooring shelf, a platform up at the very tip of the bow from which the forwardmost landing ropes and the steel mooring cable were released to the ground crew, and which was directly at the forward end of the axial walkway and just ahead of gas cell The rest were standing either along the lower keel walkway ahead of the control car, or else on platforms beside the stairway leading up the curve of the bow to the mooring shelf.
During the fire the bow hung in the air at roughly a degree angle and flames shot forward through the axial walkway, bursting through the bow and the bow gas cells like a blowtorch.
The three men from the forward section who survived elevatorman Kurt Bauer, cook Alfred Grözinger, and electrician Josef Leibrecht were those furthest aft of the bow, and two of them Bauer and Grözinger happened to be standing near two large triangular air vents, through which cool air was being drawn by the fire.
Neither of these men sustained more than superficial burns. Three of the four men standing on the mooring shelf inside the very tip of the bow were actually taken from the wreck alive, though one Erich Spehl, a rigger died shortly afterwards in the Air Station's infirmary, and the other two helmsman Alfred Bernhard and apprentice elevatorman Ludwig Felber were reported by newspapers to have initially survived the fire, and then to subsequently have died at area hospitals during the night or early the following morning.
Hydrogen fires are less destructive to immediate surroundings than gasoline explosions because of the buoyancy of H 2 , which causes heat of combustion to be released upwards more than circumferentially as the leaked mass ascends in the atmosphere; hydrogen fires are more survivable than fires of gasoline or wood.
At the time of the disaster, sabotage was commonly put forward as the cause of the fire, initially by Hugo Eckener , former head of the Zeppelin Company and the "old man" of German airships.
In initial reports, before inspecting the accident, Eckener mentioned the possibility of a shot as the cause of the disaster, because of threatening letters that had been received, but did not rule out other causes.
Lakehurst time, or approximately an hour after the crash by the ringing of his bedside telephone. By the time he left the hotel the next morning to travel to Berlin for a briefing on the disaster, the only answer that he had for the reporters waiting outside to question him was that based on what he knew, the Hindenburg had "exploded over the airfield"; sabotage might be a possibility.
However, as he learned more about the disaster, particularly that the airship had burned rather than actually "exploded", he grew more and more convinced that static discharge, rather than sabotage, was the cause.
Commander Charles Rosendahl, commander of the Naval Air Station at Lakehurst and the man in overall charge of the ground-based portion of the Hindenburg's landing maneuver, also came to believe that the Hindenburg had been sabotaged.
He laid out a general case for sabotage in his book What About the Airship? Another proponent of the sabotage hypothesis was Max Pruss, commander of the Hindenburg throughout the airship's career.
Pruss flew on nearly every flight of the Graf Zeppelin until the Hindenburg was ready. In a interview conducted by Kenneth Leish for Columbia University 's Oral History Research Office, Pruss said early dirigible travel was safe, and therefore he strongly believed that sabotage was to blame.
He stated that on trips to South America, which was a popular destination for German tourists, both airships passed through thunderstorms and were struck by lightning but remained unharmed.
Most members of the crew refused to believe that one of them would commit an act of sabotage, insisting only a passenger could have destroyed the airship.
A suspect favored by Commander Rosendahl, Captain Pruss, and others among the Hindenburg's crew, was passenger Joseph Späh, a German acrobat who survived the fire.
He brought with him a dog, a German shepherd named Ulla, as a surprise for his children. He reportedly made a number of unaccompanied visits to feed his dog, who was being kept in a freight room near the stern of the ship.
Those who suspected Späh based their suspicions primarily on those trips into the ship's interior to feed his dog, that according to some of the stewards Späh had told anti-Nazi jokes during the flight, recollections by stewards that Späh had seemed agitated by the repeated delays in landing, and that he was an acrobat who could conceivably climb into the airship's rigging to plant a bomb.
In , A. Hoehling published Who Destroyed the Hindenburg? Erich Spehl, a rigger on the Hindenburg who died in the fire, was named as a potential saboteur.
Ten years later, Michael MacDonald Mooney's book The Hindenburg , which was based heavily on Hoehling's sabotage hypothesis, also identified Spehl as a possible saboteur; Mooney's book was made into the movie The Hindenburg The producers of the film were sued by Hoehling for plagiarism, but Hoehling's case was dismissed because he had presented his sabotage hypothesis as historical fact, and it is not possible to claim ownership of historical facts.
Hoehling's and later Mooney's hypothesis goes on to say that it is unlikely that Spehl wanted to kill people, and that he intended the airship to burn after the landing.
However, with the ship already over 12 hours late, Spehl was unable to find an excuse to reset the timer on his bomb. It has been suggested that Adolf Hitler himself ordered the Hindenburg to be destroyed in retaliation for Eckener's anti-Nazi opinions.
Since the publication of Hoehling's book, most airship historians, including Dr. Douglas Robinson, have dismissed Hoehling's sabotage hypothesis because no solid evidence was ever presented to support it.
No pieces of a bomb were ever discovered and there is no evidence in existing documentation that the sample collected from the wreckage, and determined to be residue from a dry cell battery, was found anywhere near the stern of the airship , and on closer examination, the evidence against Spehl and his girlfriend turned out to be rather weak.
Additionally, it is unlikely that Rigger Knorr would not remain at cell 4 to further assess the purported damage claimed by Kubis.
Additionally, Mooney's book has been criticized as having numerous fictional elements, and it has been suggested that the plot was created for the then-upcoming film.
However, opponents of the sabotage hypothesis argued that only speculation supported sabotage as a cause of the fire, and no credible evidence of sabotage was produced at any of the formal hearings.
Erich Spehl died in the fire and was therefore unable to refute the accusations that surfaced a quarter of a century later. The FBI investigated Joseph Späh and reported finding no evidence of Späh having any connection to a sabotage plot.
Neither the German, nor the American investigation, endorsed any of the sabotage theories. Proponents of the sabotage hypothesis argue that any finding of sabotage would have been an embarrassment for the Nazi regime, and they speculate that such a finding by the German investigation was suppressed for political reasons.
However, it has also been suggested that numerous crewmen subscribed to the sabotage hypothesis because they refused to accept any flaws with the airship or pilot error.
Some more sensational newspapers claimed that a Luger pistol with one round fired was found among the wreckage and speculated that a person on board committed suicide or shot the airship.
Hugo Eckener argued that the fire was started by an electric spark which was caused by a buildup of static electricity on the airship.
Proponents of the static spark hypothesis point out that the airship's skin was not constructed in a way that allowed its charge to be distributed evenly throughout the craft.
The skin was separated from the duralumin frame by non-conductive ramie cords which had been lightly covered in metal to improve conductivity but not very effectively, allowing a large difference in potential to form between the skin and the frame.
In order to make up for the delay of more than 12 hours in its transatlantic flight, the Hindenburg passed through a weather front of high humidity and high electrical charge.
Although the mooring lines were not wet when they first hit the ground and ignition took place four minutes after, Eckener theorised that they may have become wet in these four minutes.
When the ropes, which were connected to the frame, became wet, they would have grounded the frame but not the skin.
Seeking the quickest way to ground, the spark would have jumped from the skin onto the metal framework, igniting the leaking hydrogen. In his book LZ Hindenburg , Zeppelin historian Dr.
Douglas Robinson commented that although ignition of free hydrogen by static discharge had become a favored hypothesis, no such discharge was seen by any of the witnesses who testified at the official investigation into the accident in He continues:.
But within the past year, I have located an observer, Professor Mark Heald of Princeton, New Jersey, who undoubtedly saw St.
Elmo's Fire flickering along the airship's back a good minute before the fire broke out. Standing outside the main gate to the Naval Air Station, he watched, together with his wife and son, as the Zeppelin approached the mast and dropped her bow lines.
A minute thereafter, by Mr. Heald's estimation, he first noticed a dim "blue flame" flickering along the backbone girder about one-quarter the length abaft the bow to the tail.
There was time for him to remark to his wife, "Oh, heavens, the thing is afire," for her to reply, "Where?
Unlike other witnesses to the fire whose view of the port side of the ship had the light of the setting sun behind the ship, Professor Heald's view of the starboard side of the ship against a backdrop of the darkening eastern sky would have made the dim blue light of a static discharge on the top of the ship more easily visible.
Harold G. Dick was Goodyear Zeppelin's representative with Luftschiffbau Zeppelin during the mids. He flew on test flights of the Hindenburg and its sister ship, the Graf Zeppelin II.
He also flew on numerous flights in the original Graf Zeppelin and ten round-trip crossings of the north and south Atlantic in the Hindenburg. There are two items not in common knowledge.
When the outer cover of the LZ [the Graf Zeppelin II ] was to be applied, the lacing cord was prestretched and run through dope as before but the dope for the LZ contained graphite to make it conductive.Der Zeppelin LZ „Hindenburg“, benannt nach dem deutschen Reichspräsidenten Paul von Hindenburg, war neben seinem Schwesterluftschiff LZ eines der beiden größten jemals gebauten Luftfahrzeuge. Seine Jungfernfahrt war im März Am 6. Der Zeppelin LZ „Hindenburg“ (Kennzeichen D-LZ), benannt nach dem deutschen Er schilderte die Flammen, den Absturz, warnte die Menschen am Boden, berichtete von Meter hohem Rauch und Flammen und dachte an die. Am 3. Mai startet die "Hindenburg" in Frankfurt Richtung New York. und Filmteams dokumentieren den Absturz der Hindenburg vor Ort. Es ist die erste. „Hindenburg“-Absturz, eine Abfolge fataler Physik-Verkettungen. Am 6. Mai endete die Geschichte der zivilen Luftschifffahrt in einer.